Elevated fecal calprotectin levels indicate migration of neutrophils into the intestinal mucosa, which occurs during intestinal inflammation. Since calprotectin is resistant to enzymatic degradation it is a useful marker for the detection of inflammatory bowel diseases.
Lactoferrin has antimicrobial activity and is part of the innate defense. Fecal lactoferrin is an indicator of intestinal inflammation in both IBD and infectious gastroenteritis. As a sensitive biomarker of paediatric IBD, it serves as an aid for guiding the diagnostic and therapeutic process for both paediatric and adult IBD.